Advanced Instruments, Inc. is a leading supplier of instrumentation for clinical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, microbiology and food laboratories around the world. Quality, reliability, service and support have been the company’s guiding principles since our founding in 1955. While Advanced Instruments continues to be the world’s foremost authority for the application of freezing-point depression technology, our analytical expertise has expanded to include cytology, infrared and image analysis. Our innovative application of technology helps healthcare organizations improve the quality of care and industrial companies enhance quality and productivity.
Freezing Point Osmometry Definitions
Crystallization Temperature – The temperature at which aqueous solutions crystallize when super cooled.
Freezing Point/Melting Point – The temperature at which the liquid and solid phases of a substance remain together in equilibrium. Both are the same temperature, however the measuring technique differs.
Freezing Point Depression – The freezing point of a solvent lowers when a solute is added to aqueous solutions. One mole (1 Osmol) of solute per kilogram of water depresses the freezing point by 1.85° C.
Freezing Point Plateau – The constant temperature maintained during the time that ice and liquid exist in isothermal equilibrium after crystallization occurs.
Heat of Fusion –The heat released when a super-cooled liquid crystallizes. The crystallization process considerably reduces the random molecular motion of the liquid state. The loss of molecular energy is released as heat. This heat of “putting together” warms the solution, causing the paradox of sample warming during freezing. For water, 80 calories of heat are released for every gram that turns from liquid to solid.
Super-cooling – The tendency of any solvent or solution to remain in a liquid state when cooled below its freezing point. The greater the amount of super-cooling, the less stable the liquid and the more likely it is to crystallize spontaneously. It corresponds, in a sense, to supersaturation of solute in a solvent.
Thermodynamics – The study of heat transfer, with respect to measuring a freezing point. It is an analysis of all factors that affect heat flow into, from and within a sample.
The cultivation of microorganisms in an oxygen-depleted atmosphere typically takes place using anaerobic jars, an anaerobic glove cabinet or a CO2 incubator. These conventional methods are marred by many disadvantages, including late discovery of faulty jars or gas packs, slow anaerobiosis and chemical waste.
The massive space-occupying chambers (anaerobic cabinets or CO2 incubators) with fixed environments consume huge quantities of gas (requiring correspondingly large gas cylinders to keep them running). Servicing is costly and inconvenient. Added to this, they are incapable of cultivating micro-aerophilic and anaerobic organisms at the same time, thus denying laboratories vital flexibility. The Anoxomat has been designed to cope with many shortcomings. It offers an alternative to these methods, using the evacuation and replacement method of MacIntosh & Fildes, to create regular or user defined atmospheres in an anaerobic jar. The benefits of this method can be viewed under About the choice of this method. The benefits of using jars can be viewed under About the use of jars. Originally, the Anoxomat was designed to fit into what is called the “Anaerobic Culture Chain” in medical research, where the system was used to culture samples of patients for diagnostic purposes and to test inhibitory properties of antibiotics. Over the years, others also became aware of the advantages and efficiency of the Anoxomat, which has now found widespread application in a great many sectors. Apart from regional healthcare laboratories, microbiological departments of laboratories in hospitals, universities, veterinary institutes and the biotechnological sector, the systems are also used in the pharmaceutical and petrochemical industry. Food, beverage and water companies also have a special interest in the Anoxomat, as some pathogenic bacteria are anaerobic or micro-aerophilic. General advantages of the system can be viewed under Benefits.
FLM200 Fluorophos ALP Test System
Advanced Instruments Fluorophos® ALP Test System, for Determination of Pasteurization in Milk.
The Flourophos system is the most sensitive, fast and reliable test for confirmation of pasteurization.